“ All that the HPV vaccines have been proven to reduce is HPV infections and pre-cancerous cervical cancer lesions, a large fraction of which self-resolve without any treatment. As of today, we do not know if the HPV vaccines can actually prevent cervical cancer or simply postpone it,” said Lucia Tomljenovi, one of the authors of the 2011 paper.

According to Schimp, the cancers that the vaccines prevent do not generally happen until women are 45 to 55 years old.

“We don't have enough data to tell how much it’s impacted our cervical cancer or vaginal vulvar cancer rates,” she said.

However, Schimp said the benefit of the vaccine far outweighs the risk and that she would have her own children vaccinated.

Chad and his sister, Danielle, said they do not see it that way because they are part of that small percentage of individuals to experience side effects.

“If I could go back in time, go back in time to 2009, I wouldn't do it, but everybody's different. Just do your research,” said Theresa Tomoser.